[Personal View] Immunotherapy and targeted therapy combinations in metastatic breast cancer

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Immunotherapy is emerging as a new treatment modality in breast cancer. After long-standing use of endocrine therapy and targeted biological therapy, improved understanding of immune evasion by cancer cells and the discovery of selective immune checkpoint inhibitors have created novel opportunities for treatment. Single-drug therapies with monoclonal antibodies against programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) have shown little efficacy in patients with metastatic breast cancer, in part because of the low number of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in most breast cancers.

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