Predictors of Venous Thromboembolism and Early Mortality in Lung Cancer: Results from a Global Prospective Study (CANTARISK)

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AbstractBackground.Patients with lung cancer are known to be at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Venous thromboembolism is associated with increased risk for early mortality. However, there have been no studies performing a comprehensive assessment of risk factors for VTE or early mortality in lung cancer patients undergoing systemic chemotherapy in a global real‐world setting.Materials and Methods.CANTARISK is a prospective, global, noninterventional cohort study including patients with lung cancer initiating a new cancer therapy. Clinical data were collected until 6‐month follow‐up. The impact of patient‐, disease‐, and treatment‐related factors on the occurrence of VTE and early mortality was evaluated in univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses. A previously validated VTE risk score (VTE‐RS) was also calculated (also known as Khorana score).Results.Of 1,980 patients with lung cancer who were enrolled from 2011 to 2012, 84% had non‐small cell lung cancer. During the first 6 months, 121 patients developed a VTE (6.1%), of which 47% had pulmonary embolism, 46% deep vein thrombosis, 3% catheter‐associated thrombosis, and 4% visceral thrombosis. Independent predictors for VTE included female sex, North America location, leg immobilization, and presence of a central venous catheter. The VTE‐RS was not significantly associated with VTE in either univariable or multivariable analysis in this population. During the study period, 472 patients died, representing 20%, 24%, 36%, and 25% with VTE‐RS 1, 2, ≥3, or unknown, respectively (p < .0001). Significant independent predictors of early mortality include older age, current/former smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥2, no prior surgery, and metastatic disease, as well as the VTE‐RS.Conclusion.In this global, prospective, real‐world analysis, several demographic, geographic, and clinical factors are independent risk factors for VTE and early mortality in patients with lung cancer. The VTE‐RS represents a significant independent predictor of early mortality but not for VTE in lung cancer in the era of targeted therapy.Implications for Practice.Multiple risk factors for both venous thromboembolism (VTE) and early mortality in patients with lung cancer receiving systemic chemotherapy should guide best practice by better informing clinical evaluation and treatment decision‐making. The Khorana risk score is of value in assessing the risk of early all‐cause mortality along with other clinical parameters in patients with lung cancer receiving systemic therapy. Further study is needed to fully evaluate the validity of the risk score in predicting the risk of VTE in the modern era of lung cancer therapy.

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