[Review] Modulating the microbiome to improve therapeutic response in cancer

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Although novel therapies, including immunotherapy, have dramatically improved outcomes for many patients with cancer, overall outcomes are heterogeneous and existing biomarkers do not reliably predict response. To date, predictors of response to cancer therapy have largely focused on tumour-intrinsic features; however, there is growing evidence that other host factors (eg, host genomics and the microbiome) can substantially affect therapeutic response. The microbiome, which refers to microbiota within a host and their collective genomes, is becoming increasingly recognised for its influence on host immunity, as well as therapeutic responses to cancer treatment.

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