Beyond Unconventional: What Do We Really Know about Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells? [BRIEF REVIEWS]

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a set of effectors that mediate the expulsion of helminthic parasites but also drive allergic lung inflammation. As innate agents, they do not recognize Ag, instead, they are sensitive to alarmin engagement, upon which they produce type 2 cytokines that amplify adaptive immunity. Their lymphoid identity appoints them as an intriguing group of unconventional cells; however, increasing evidence is unraveling a series of unprecedented functions that <5 years ago were unthinkable for ILC2s, such as acquiring a proinflammatory identity that enables them to support TH1 immune responses. Their plastic nature has allowed the characterization of ILC2s in more detail than ever; however, the novelty of ILC2 biology requires constant updates and recapitulations. This review provides an overview of ILC2s and describes memory ILC2, regulatory ILC2, inflammatory ILC2, and type 1 ILC2 subsets based on activation status, tissue environments, and function.

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