Letter comments on: The effects of antibiotics on the efficacy of immune-checkpoint inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer patients differ according to PD-L1 expression

We read with great interest the article by Ochi and collaborators [1]. In this retrospective study, the authors assessed the impact of antibiotic (ATB) therapy on the outcomes of 531 patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) (anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibody). In addition, they investigated the association between outcome and PD-L1 expression data, which was available for 265 patients (48.2%). Interestingly, ATB treatment was significantly associated with a shorter median overall survival (OS), but not progression-free survival (PFS) in 98 patients who received ATB (18.5%).

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