MCP-Induced Protein 1 Participates in Macrophage-Dependent Endotoxin Tolerance [INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION]

Endotoxin tolerance is a state of hyporesponsiveness to LPS, triggered by previous exposure to endotoxin. Such an immunosuppressive state enhances the risks of secondary infection and has been associated with the pathophysiology of sepsis. Although this phenomenon has been extensively studied, its molecular mechanism is not fully explained. Among candidates that play a crucial role in this process are negative regulators of TLR signaling, but the contribution of MCP-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1; Regnase-1) has not been studied yet. To examine whether macrophage expression of MCPIP1 participates in endotoxin tolerance, we used both murine and human primary macrophages devoid of MCPIP1 expression. In our study, we demonstrated that MCPIP1 contributes to LPS hyporesponsiveness induced by subsequent LPS stimulation and macrophage reprogramming. We proved that this mechanism revolves around the deubiquitinase activity of MCPIP1, which inhibits the phosphorylation of MAPK and NF-B activation. Moreover, we showed that MCPIP1 controlled the level of proinflammatory transcripts in LPS-tolerized cells independently of its RNase activity. Finally, we confirmed these findings applying an in vivo endotoxin tolerance model in wild-type and myeloid MCPIP1–deficient mice. Taken together, this study describes for the first time, to our knowledge, that myeloid MCPIP1 participates in endotoxin tolerance and broadens the scope of known negative regulators of the TLR4 pathway crucial in this phenomenon.

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